May 07, 2020
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Meaningful learning. Effective training stems from a basic plan* which addresses the following:
*Queensland Council of Adult Literacy
Understanding how adults learn
The Public Library Services Adult Literacy collection has tutoring-advice books, audio kits and resources for tutors and learners, including English speakers and those learning English as a second language. They can be requested via the adult literacy material bulk loan request form at www.slq.qld.gov.au/services/ask-us
www.criticalreading.com/ – explains critical reading & thinking. It helps to show a reader to what look for and how to think about what they find
www.adulted.about.com A useful site which contains an overview of adult learning theory, a list of books about how adults learn, links to other websites about how adults learn, and a brief list of other key adult learning resources.
www.learnerassociates.net A range of practical strategies for helping adults learn, set out in easy to follow ‘worksheet’ format.
www.agelesslearner.com A discussion of the difference between pedagogy (child) and andragogy (adult).
www.celt.mmu.ac.uk Provides a generalised overview of learning theories, how adults learn and different learning styles. Doesn’t address practical strategies for teaching adults.
www.nald.ca A practical and concisely written reflection on teaching adults.
Media – to find out more about Adult Literacy
Adult Learning Youtube channel www.youtube.com
Australian Learning Lectures
A decade-long project is designed to elevate the importance of learning in Australia for all Australians, and change the way Australia thinks about itself as a learning society. Australian Learning Lecture (ALL) lecture series
An effective-teacher’s repertoire
A teacher needs motivating skills, questioning skills, supporting skills (verbal praise being the most common), information-giving skills(including feedback) and listening skills (primarily non-verbal like eye contact and posture).
Techniques for better listening include: Listening, ignore distractions, summarise, tame emotions, eliminate hasty judgements, never interrupt, inspire openness, need to listen and generate conclusions. (SCRC 2012, ‘Develop Tutor Strategies in Listening and Speaking’ p4).
Question styles need to be wide ranging and include low-order convergent style (recall and memorisation with answers as yes/no or quotes), high- order convergent style (beyond recall, describe), low order divergent style (eg: identify reasons) and high order divergent style (make predictions, solve lifelike problems, such as asking what their favourite book is and why) (Wilen et al. 2000, p.181)
Effective feedback contains three components. These are a definition of correctness or standard of performance to be met, evidence indicating whether the standard was or was not achieved and corrective procedures as to what must be re-learned and how (Wilen et al. 2000, p.45)
Generating an academic climate promotes learning “Be task orientated and time aware, and to do this there are four key points to keep in mind. keep student on task and involved with challenging activity, give limited and purposeful homework and monitor progress for student success” (Wilen et al. 2000, p.29)
It is important to provide opportunities for success. “structure success experiences so that all students feel positive about themselves as learners” “Students need opportunities to succeed frequently on learning tasks” (Wilen et al. 2000, p.43)
Applegate, Applegate & Turner (2010, p 211) suggest teachers develop flexible reading programs that encourage the success of struggling readers and suit the needs of individual students.
Embark on the use of the Language Experience Approach, using topics of great interest to the students and enabling them to experience engaged learning, they suggest, because the ideas and words included in the experience become the vehicle through which skills can be developed.
“The job of the literacy leader is to help students achieve a healthy balance whereby they use all of their skills to arrive at the ultimate goal: becoming skilled and motivated readers who read thoughtfully and purposefully for an array of purposes.”
So, the primary task of literacy leaders is to help all of their colleagues keep their eyes on the prize and develop the flexibility they need to adjust their programs to achieve a solid match with all students. (Applegate , Applegate & Turner 2010, p.212)
“When thinking about language, remember that it is living, not dead. It continues to develop and change. To use English well, you need to be aware of how it is used in different situations and for different purposes.” (Seely, 1998, p.157)
How children learn (research/resources below are from the Australian school system)
These readings, strategies and practical tips also provide insight into adult learning
The science of spelling: the explicit specifics that make great readers and writers (and spellers!) (PDF, 755 KB) – a research article
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences https://www.cornerstone.edu/blogs/lifelong-learning-matters/post/what-are-multiple-intelligences-and-how-do-they-affect-learning
Critical and Creative Thinking skills https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/f-10-curriculum/general-capabilities/critical-and-creative-thinking/
Graphic Organisers Global Education templates https://www.globaleducation.edu.au/resources-gallery/resource-gallery-templates.html
Reflecting: ideas for teaching and learning activities using graphic organisers and processes http://www.englishtextualconcepts.nsw.edu.au/sites/default/files/graphic%20organiser%20-%20reflecting.pdf
Multiple Intelligences units http://www.rde.nsw.edu.au/capresources/
Integrate educational thinking skills (Bloom) & learning styles (Gardner).